Pundits have opined that corona-virus is no passing cloud and we need to learn how to to live with it. Lock-downs are being lifted globally and with the resumption of day to day activities, emphasis has been placed on wearing masks, practicing social distancing and washing hands to beat the pandemic.
How then can we ensure public spaces minimize transmission of the virus?
Establishing mandatory hygiene stations at entrances to buildings
Hygiene stations can be in the form of a simple hand wash basin with running water, soap and paper towels to dry the hands. Where this is not possible then sanitizers can be availed. This will safeguard transmissions especially through shared surfaces that one cannot avoid touching such as shopping carts, handrails, lift buttons, ATMs and buttons on copy machines. These surfaces can potentially hold viruses for several hours and should be cleaned and disinfected regularly throughout the day.
It is important to limit the number of surfaces that come into contact with many people. Installing automatic doors, which open and close with the help of sensors, eliminates the need for using door handles.
Hand free sensor taps may be more costly but are far more hygienic than normal taps since they require no human contact. They are best suited for for public washrooms, hospitals and homes for the elderly.
There has been concern about finger print recognition systems which require users to touch the sensors. They can act as a medium to pass the virus via contact. One can opt to disinfecting the sensor surfaces with alcohol and this could significantly lower the possibility of virus transmission, if not completely remove it.
The Ministry of Health has instructed all public service vehicles to observe spacing between passengers by carrying only 60 per cent of the capacity of their vessels. All public service operators are also required to provide sanitizers for passengers before boarding vehicles.
The shortfalls of the the existing public transport system have been pointed out here and our best bet is to encourage cycling among the masses.
The journey towards home ownership is no walk in the park. There are twists and turns along the way and only a few lucky ones actualize this dream. The first and biggest challenge is always raising the required amount to either buy a ready built unit or buying land and building a house suited to your taste.
Buying a house is more expensive than building one. Some prospective home owners might not have the full amount upfront but are able to get it in installments. Building becomes a more viable option for them. However, running around chasing after fundis might not be their cup of tea. This is the niche that off plan housing intends to fill.
Like the name suggests, off plan property investment is buying a property still on plan or at design stage, meaning not yet constructed. The buyer pays for it in installments.
The developer sells an investor the design to a home before it is built, often at a discount. The developer then uses the upfront payment to complete construction of the property, thus is able to secure financing for the project.
The off-plan property is deemed attractive if there is a high level of infrastructure in the immediate area e.g a new university or express roads, either already built or due to be built within the next few years. In a rapidly rising real estate economics housing market, buying off-plan enables investors and home buyers to buy a property at a lower price than if they wait for construction of their chosen property to commence. In addition, buying off-plan may be the only way to get a property with a specific location or set of features as choice may be limited once construction starts.
Buying a property off-plan, whether to use as a home or as an investment, incurs more risks than buying a property that has already been built.
The developer may go out of business before construction of the property is completed and the buyer may not be able to recover the monies advanced. This the plight of investors who paid huge sums of money to Banda Homes and Suraya Properties and whose stories have made headlines in the recent past. The investors complained of making payments but not seeing any considerable progress in construction of their homes.
There has been suggestions to introduce regulations to strengthen off plan property purchase sector, that will weed out phony developers. In 2016, Dubai introduced a regulation that require developers and brokers to get approval from Dubai’s Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) before they advertise property in the media. The new regulation was aimed at cracking down on fake property ads, protecting both buyers and genuine developers.
They further strengthened the property industry by introducing a regulation that requires a development to first attain 50 per cent completion before they can begin off-plan sales.
In the absence of such regulations, would-be home owners are expected to carry out due diligence before engaging the developers. This could be in the form of viewing past completed projects and speaking to former clients. They can also insist that payments are made based on milestones achieved in the project.
Lastly, the investor can request that the new-build property developments is backed by bank guarantees that protects the buyer from a builder going bankrupt.
The year 2021 will see Kenya’s construction industry adopting the European Code of Standards known as EuroCodes, replacing the British standards (BS) that have been in use since 1969.
According to Kenya Beaureu of Standards (KEBS), come 2021 any product that does not conform to the Eurocodes will not be allowed into the country.
Eurocodes are Europe’s first set of harmonized rules covering all aspects of the structural design of buildings and other civil engineering works. Many practicing structural engineers who grew up with the BS as their defacto guide on matters design will now have to embrace and adopt the Eurocodes.
Eurocodes consist of two parts. The first part is generally the same for all participating countries and is divided into ten segments (EN1990-EN1991). Kenya will begin by implementing only the first four codes: Structural design, action on structures, code on design of concrete structures and code on design of steel structures. The second part consists of the national annex and will adapt the local needs of the country.
Most of the rules in the Eurocodes are based on the same principles used in the British standards. However, they are updated with recent research on aspects dealing with the structure of a building. They are less stringent than the BS because most of the aspects lie with the designer.
The advantage of the new standards is that they promote greater transparency in design methods and will ease communication between designers, authorities and clients.
Eurocodes are expected to open up the country to international markets as construction professionals are enabled to bid and take up contracts beyond Kenyan borders.
Adoption of the standards requires building local capacity, as well as domesticating the Eurocode with local annexes attached to the European template. For example: wind speeds are different in every geological area so adopting the Eurocode without changing to local specifics may mean that the standards become expensive to implement within the local market as engineers will tend to over-design.
They are also expected to be localized to bring on board local building materials and local practices so that they are relevant and easily applied to the Kenyan market.
The Eurocodes once adopted, are set to eliminate disparities that hinder transfer of engineering technology and services within Kenya and the global market. This will allow innovation and use of alternative technology.
The standards are also expected to promote uniformity in levels of safety in the construction sector.
“No one wants to build a house when they can barely afford to put food on the table.”
The signing into law of the Finance Bill 2018 unleashed a heavy tax burden to be borne by the common mwananchi. Among the range of new taxes introduced, competing to rob Kenyans of the little they have, is the housing development fund tax. It entails a 1.5% mandatory levy on every worker’s gross salary with a maximum deduction pegged at Ksh5,000, meaning those with monthly income of more than Ksh166,000 will contribute Ksh2,500, with the employer matching the same.
Proponents of the fund argue that it is meant to help the State realize its goal of delivering 500,000 affordable housing units in five years as a means to stop the expansion of slums and informal dwellings in major towns in the country. A noble venture at face value but the devil is always in the details.
“The employers are against introduction of contribution towards the NHDF mainly because this would increase the wage bill. Employees on the other hand are opposed to the proposed contribution for several reasons; first, it is not clear whether all contributors to the fund would eventually benefit from it.
Second, the public is afraid that the funds may be misappropriated. Third, some employees are already servicing mortgages for houses they have acquired privately and would still be compelled to contribute to the fund and lastly, this contribution is only imposed on employees and employers not on the rest of the public.”
The distrust the public has about the fund stems from the poor governance issues already experienced among State-sponsored funds such as the National Social Security Fund and the National Hospital Insurance Fund and it almost looks like the proposed fund is bound to suffer the same fate.
While the contributions towards the fund are supposed to enable Kenyans own a house under an affordable housing scheme, there is still not much clarity on what “affordable housing scheme” means and how the informal sector participates.
Twitter user @dnahinga opines that “The Housing Levy is set to solve a problem that has not been defined accurately. Like the SGR before it, feasibility will be done later. The size of the problem is Unknown. The solution will be singular, from tenderprenuers. And if it fails, it will be expanded.”
The manner in which the authorities carried out recent demolitions fell short of occupational safety and health standards, revealing the irony of a government tasked to uphold regulations that in itself is unable to comply with.
Demolitions are one of the most hazardous construction activities. The works require proper planning and constant supervision from a competent engineer to ensure all safety requirements are met and accidents are avoided.
An engineering survey should be undertaken prior, to establish where existing utilities such as gas, electricity, water and telecommunications services are. These need to be isolated or disconnected before demolition work begins and if this is not possible, pipes and cables must be labelled clearly, to make sure they are not disturbed.
In the absence of a perimeter wall or security fence, barriers or hoardings become necessary to isolate the demolition site from the public, thus preventing unauthorized access and trespassing.
It is mostly malls that were targeted in the demolition spree. Their location next to busy roads meant that there was high risk of passers-by getting injured by the premature and uncontrolled collapse of structures or by flying debris. A covered walkway, in conjunction with a catch platform, would have provided protection to the pedestrian traffic against falling debris.
All demolition works should proceed in such a way that it causes the least damage and nuisance to adjoining buildings and members of the public. Once demolitions are complete, the site should be cleared of debris and leveled.
Ours is a society suffering from an edifice complex: a compulsive urge to build structures over any open space available. We are riding on the skewed logic that any undeveloped space is wasted land.
The battle between the built environment and open spaces is being fought and sadly won by the “private developers”. Playgrounds, public parks and other green spaces that were once open to the public are on a steady decline, being substituted instead with gray infrastructure in the form of gated communities, malls and office complexes.
As urbanization increases, so should our appreciation of the importance of green spaces. They provide recreational opportunities both for organized sports and individual exercise. They are a welcome reprieve from the urban environment, allowing citizens to interact with nature which is generally important for one’s mental and psychological well being.
As an island of nature an urban public space promotes biodiversity and provides a home for natural species in environments that are otherwise uninhabitable due to city development. They contribute to the overall aesthetics of an area ameliorating the built-up character of the cities.
Even as development of residential properties is at a high, we need to ensure we increase allocation of public recreational space. Residents and local authorities must be vigilant to resist any attempts by shrewd business men to grab school playgrounds, road reserves and riparian lands.
Existing public spaces need to be well maintained. It has been pointed out that unused and unfenced open land is more attractive to grabbers than fenced and regularly used open spaces.The bark stops with the county government which has been faulted for focusing on public spaces close to the CBD like Uhuru Park and Jeevanjee Gardens but neglected public open spaces that are in residential areas.
Residents can also partner with the county authorities, corporates and NGOs in an effort to not only reclaim and protect these spaces but also develop and make good use of them. Groups such as friends of Nairobi Arboretum and Friends of City park Nairobi are but a few examples where concerned citizens have come together and formed lobby groups that watch over and, at times, maintain the parks.
The construction industry faces plenty of challenges with both big and small companies struggling to counter them. We reveal why running a construction business in Kenya is not as simple as it looks and what to expect if you’re planning to venture into these murky waters.
The approval process is a pain
Before being allowed to put up any development project, one is required to obtain various approvals from different agencies. The architect handling the project on a client’s behalf will first visit the Survey Office of Kenya to obtain a survey plan, then submit this together with architectural plans and later structural plans among other documents at the County level. After approval of plans, one is still required to have their project registered with both the National Construction Authority (NCA) and the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) before proceeding with construction.
The “chain like” nature of the approval system, exposes us to construction failure each time one agency fails to do its job: after all, a chain can only be as strong as its weakest link. In a previous article, I had highlighted how corruption has seen authorities turning a blind eye while a building that is in clear violation of building standards is set up. The saddest bit is that even when you are actually following the proper channels, officials from the various agencies have been suspected to frustrate the process so that you can pay them “something small” for the process to be hastened.
In order to adopt best practice, there is need to amend our existing laws to accommodate having all approvals done under one umbrella. Clients do not need to visit multiple agencies in order to seek approval. Runaway corruption will also need to be tamed so that systems can work as they should.
The launch of the Electronic Development Applications Management System(E-DAMS), currently in use in Nairobi, Kiambu and Mombasa counties is a huge milestone. The system will help in the issuance of development permits online, profiling of ongoing developments for inspection process, support for the planning enforcement process and data collection on inspections and archiving of all data.
This is expected to ensure that building and construction industry services are done fast, cost-effectively and efficiently. It has also been proven that reducing the time in seeking approvals will definitely increase the number of buildings that are compliant with existing bylaws.
Local contractors lack capacity to deliver mega projects
It is no secret that a huge proportion of lucrative government tenders have been awarded to foreign contractors to the detriment of local and citizen contractors. The Kenyan government and the big private sector players in the country favor foreign contractors due to their relatively significant expertise and financial muscle.
The irony here is that the same government denying the local contractors huge infrastructural projects, has hardly attempted to build local capacity. The government can help local firms to secure funds by having a construction bank that can be used to fund large projects both locally or abroad. This has worked for the Chinese, whose companies have hogged most of the mega road projects in Kenya over the last decade as part of the conditions for Beijing financing the projects.
The lack of proper enforcement of the local content clause under the Public Procurement and Disposal Act has also created loopholes that favor foreign companies and has encouraged importation that is unsustainable for promotion of the local industry.
Lack of technical skills and job experience is another major problem affecting capacity. Surprisingly, the main issue is not because there are too many graduates chasing few jobs, but because most graduates lack the necessary skills and experience that the job market requires.
A construction industry survey conducted by the NCA revealed that the sector depends mainly on unskilled laborers, who account for 42% of the employed labor force within the sector. The industry is dominated by 75% of semi-skilled and unskilled construction workers while at the same time experiencing skills shortages in key areas such as plumbing, electrical, masonry, paint works, welding and carpentry.
Skills development and improvement will only be realized once contractors are sensitized to take training/upgrading of their employees skills as a strategy for quality improvement, higher productivity and profitability.
Thika Highway, Outering Road and the Standard Gauge Railway: What do they have in common? They were all built by Chinese contractors.
Kenya has made significant progress in infrastructure development in recent years eliciting interests from foreign Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) firms based oversees. It had the highest number of mega infrastructure projects in East Africa in 2016, according to Deloitte thus maintaining its lead as the regional powerhouse.
The mega infrastructure projects initiated by the government have been largely financed by loans. It comes as no surprise that the country’s largest infrastructure project since independence, the Standard Gauge Railway was built by a Chinese contractor.
The growing dominance of Chinese firms including Sinohydro Corporation Limited, China Wu Yi and China Roads and Bridges Construction Company can be traced back to then President Mwai Kibaki’s policy shift to the Asian giant nearly a decade and a half ago.
The shift opened aid taps for construction of roads and upgrade of airports, but it also came with strings attached, with State agencies required to only contract Chinese firms for Chinese-funded projects.
China’s allure has been its detachment from local politics and its massive resources that allows it to finance mega projects built by its multinationals, with Kenya repaying the loans over lengthy periods.
Kenyan construction firms have cited delayed payments by the government as a major factor for breaching loan terms, revealing an operational reality that favors Chinese firms.While local firms take loans from local banks at double-digit interest rates, their Chinese rivals have large cash reserves besides an option to access subsidized credit from the state-owned China Export-Import (EXIM) Bank.
This well-oiled machine is what helps Chinese firms to complete their projects relatively faster, enhancing their reputation in public and private sector contracts. The ability of Chinese firms to arrange financing for their projects and complete them on time has seen many of them pre-qualified to build 2,000 kilometres of roads across the country.
To get a piece of the mega projects during these times when the Chinese presence looms large, local contractors have had to team up with conglomerates from markets like Europe in consortia where they are junior partners.
Many local contractors such as Kirinyaga Construction Company, which thrived under former president Daniel Moi’s regime, were confined to undertaking small projects in rural areas. Others like H Young and Intex Construction have since resorted to forming consortia with European and Indian conglomerates when bidding for government tenders, where Chinese firms enjoy pre-qualification status tied to the funding of the projects.
While the government prefers Chinese firms for their ability to finance projects, this has been criticised for promoting short-term contracts at the expense of long-term investments. Chinese firms, which often build projects single-handedly, are not open to working with local companies.That Chinese companies import labor from China rather than hire locally is a criticism echoed across Africa, but particularly strong in Kenya where youth unemployment is the highest in the region.
Some Chinese contractors have, however, started making local investments, encouraged by the growth potential in the country’s construction sector. China Wu Yi, for instance, is building a Sh10 billion housing materials plant in Athi River for its own use and sale to other construction firms.The factory, which will produce precast construction materials, is the company’s first such facility outside China.
The need to successfully manage a project is no longer a luxury but a necessity. This was arguably the most memorable quote from Mr Nashon Okowa, chairman of The Association of Construction Managers of Kenya (ACMK), uttered in the association’s End of year Gala dinner held at the Inter Continental Hotel last Thursday.
The event was graced by various notable heads including Marwa Kitayama (MP from Kuria West), Emmanuel Wangwe (MP Navakholo) and Fred Ouda (Mp from Kisumu Central) as well as representatives from big firms across the Construction Industry including Cytonn Investments, TechnoConstruct Kenya, Howard Humphreys East Africa, and Mentor Management Limited just to mention a few.
The association having been launched just recently, used the event as an opportunity to highlight their achievements over the past few months as well as some of the challenges faced in their quest to regulate how project management is being practiced in Kenya.
In a previous post, I had explained why a construction manager is a key player in the overall success of projects and the financial gains that companies stand to make by employing one.Their management function and leadership is an important asset within the industry as they are responsible for keeping the project up to date, within budget and within acceptable quality standards.
Current trends in project delivery methods have seen a shift to design/build and EPC (Engineering-Procure-Contract) methods where the contractor takes on more more risk than he would have in a traditional design-bid-build.
This is expected to result in an increase in uptake of construction managers as many firms, in a quest to improve their market share and gain a valuable competitive advantage against other companies, will seek to offer turnkey project management among their range of services.
So who qualifies to be a construction manager?
Currently the course is being offered at degree level, labeled as Bachelor of Construction management, Bachelor of Science (Construction Management), Bachelor of Technology (Building Construction) or Bachelor of The Built Environment (construction management) in The University Of Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Technical University of Kenya and Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University.
If passed, the Bill will establish a board that will vet and approve construction and project managers and prescribe an examination they must pass before they are registered with the association.“Subject to the approval of the Cabinet Secretary, the board may, from time to time, formulate, vary and carry into effect schemes and curricula for education in construction project management and construction management,” states the Bill.
As one Bob Ochieng, a construction manager by profession, rightly put it, ” It is important to note that the recently emerging bills and construction laws in Kenya are largely borrowed from the South African Model, for reasons that it seems to work in Africa and secondly, Kenya has benefited immensely from her students who have over the past years sought further education and greener pasture in South Africa.
Globally, there are emerging technological advancement, challenges and newer ways of doing things effectively or conveniently. Drawn from the desire to harvest the best of these worlds into a Kenyan experience, South Africa, it seems, is emerging as the new benchmark upon which Kenyan progress shall be measured, especially in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector.”
It’s going to take a lot more than banning of plastic bags for us to have a clean environment and improve the general state of the country’s public spaces.
A trip to Mombasa County, fondly referred to as County 001, and one is amazed at how the small town is slowly morphing into a garbage paradise with litter piling left, right and center. So pathetic is the situation that the president was recently quoted urging traders at Kongowea market,one of the county’s largest open air market, not to pay taxes to their County Government.
He cited collection of garbage and putting of drainage in the market among services not being done. While many dismissed his statements as politically motivated, recent public outcry has seen many Kenyans challenging the Mombasa County government to come up with a better waste management plan so as to restore the city’s lost glory.
Tourists travelling by road from Moi International Airport to the city center have to endure an intolerable stench from the Kibarani dumpsite as the heaps of garbage within the Central Business District are an eyesore to both residents and visitors.
Waste Management Plans
Poor management of solid waste is a general problem cutting across all the forty seven counties in Kenya. While waste generation is a natural part of healthy living, it becomes a threat if the systems in place are not sufficient to manage it properly.You will find that in most urban populations, the proportion of solid waste generated is much higher compared to that which is collected.
Article 2 of the fourth Schedule in the Constitution of Kenya explicitly provides that the County Governments shall be responsible for refuse removal, refuse dumps, and solid waste removal. That County Governments have slacked in their duties of providing waste collection as an urban service is open for all to see.
Where county governments have slacked, we have seen community based organisations (CBOs) in the form of Youth Groups and other Self Help Organizations stepping up to fill in the gap. This has however had its own fair share of challenges. The process required to get a permit for waste management is lengthy and marred with many bureaucratic processes with some county officials even asking for bribes.
If we are serious in solving the waste problem then the County should streamline licensing procedures to make it simple and affordable for the youth to be economically engaged in active garbage collection, sorting, recovery, and sale of recyclables to waste dealers, while also designating communal waste collection points, improving transportation, and ensuring safe disposal of solid wastes.
Another growing concern is that designated dumping sites are bearing more garbage than what they were intended to. Case in point is the 30-acre Dandora Dumpsite that was meant to hold 500,000 tonnes of garbage, but is currently holding some 1.8 million tonnes. Scientists, led by a lecturer at the University of Nairobi’s Department of Chemistry, Prof Shem Wandiga, have warned of increased air pollution in Nairobi if the dumpsite is not closed down.
They say the 30-year-old facility is way past its maximum shelf-life of 14 years, and has become a major health threat to Nairobi residents.Besides polluting the air, the waste from the dumpsite is finding its way into Nairobi River, thus polluting the water that many people downstream use to grow vegetables and other crops, raising questions as to how safe it is to consume such vegetables.
This points to an urgent need to set up a new dumping facility or alternatively to adopt sustainable waste management in existing dumpsites in order to prolong their life.
The Nairobi Integrated Urban Development Master Plan (NIUPLAN) proposes a material recovery facility (MRF) in the Dandora Dumpsite that will ensure all the incoming waste is separated into organic, recyclable and non-organic.
The organic waste will be fermented for 30 days to reduce its volume by about 55 per cent. This separation of waste will also ease recovery and improve captured material quality of recyclable waste at minimal cost.
Important waste materials that can easily be recycled include; paper, scrap iron – used by local artisans and metal working companies, plastics and whole bottles.The re-use of refuse thus plays an important role in improving the urban physical environment.
By reducing the total amount of solid waste headed for the landfill (or left lying to rot in the streets), recycling and composting are land-saving and pollution-reducing strategies. Waste re-use also plays a valuable resource conserving role: by recycling materials, further exploitation of scarce natural resources is minimized, thus containing the spreading ecological footprint of the city.
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