Home Blog Page 3

The Untapped Water resources


The late onset of Kenya’s second rainy season in the previous year, should have served as sufficient warning of the impending drought, currently being experienced.

It is quite galling that 1.3 million Kenyans in 12 counties are facing starvation owing to drought when more could have been done to mitigate against its effects.

It has been reported that in counties such as Garissa, Wajir and Mandera, there hasn’t been proper rainfall for more than a year, yet little has been done to develop adequate water sources even though opportunities exist to exploit ground water aquifers.

Dry years do occur often and Kenya’s people and economy have become highly vulnerable to erratic climatic patterns and limited water availability.

We may not be able to stop an impending drought, but we can prepare for it and reduce the disaster risk by preventing the worst of it.

Rainwater Harvesting for the individual

Rainwater harvesting and construction of storage infrastructure is probably one of the most ‘do it yourself solutions’ that an individual can attempt.

It simply involves the collection of water from surfaces on which rain falls, and subsequently storing this water for later use and can be used to supplement the main supply as well as provide water when there is a drought.

The basic rainwater harvesting system is more of a plumbing job than a technical job as all the outlets from the building terrace are connected through a pipe to an underground tank that stores water.

To get it right, you need to appropriately size the rainwater storage and estimate the amount of rainfall that is able to be collected by the area of capture or roof area.

The rainfall capturing area must be large enough to maintain adequate flow with the water storage tank size being large enough to contain the captured water.

Dam construction

A more expensive undertaking , which helps to secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season, would be the construction of dams.

For thousands of years, dams have been used to store water and to create energy.

They serve to ensure an adequate supply of water by storing water in times of surplus and releasing it in times of scarcity, thus also preventing or mitigating floods.

A dam is the cornerstone in the development and management of water resources development of a river basin.

The multipurpose dam is a very important project for developing countries, because the population receives domestic and economic benefits from a single investment.


Purified waste water

In ensuring we have adequate supply of water for our need, we also have to check on how we use and dispose of the waste water from our homes.

Currently waste water reuse is illegal in Kenya but given the low national average rainfall of 400mm, its high time the government steps up efforts to harvest, store and re-use wastewater.

Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, and replenishing a ground water basin (referred to as ground water recharge).

Wastewater treatment can be tailored to meet the water quality requirements of a planned reuse, for example recycled water for landscape irrigation requires less treatment than recycled water for drinking water.

Recycled water can satisfy most water demands, as long as it is adequately treated to ensure water quality appropriate for the use. It is worth noting however, that recycled water is most commonly used for non-potable (not for drinking) purposes, such as agriculture, landscape, public parks, and golf course irrigation.

Ground water as an alternative

An untapped area to Kenya’s water crisis would be the exploitation of ground water. Water beneath the earth’s surface comprises over 97 per cent of the world’s readily accessible freshwater.

In Kenya, the full potential of groundwater is unknown. Meanwhile, the intensifying use and demand for water resource in Kenya reveals its strategic importance with an intervention in groundwater expected to bring tangible change.

Back in September 2013, findings of a groundwater mapping project, GRIDMAP (Groundwater Resources Investigation for Drought Mitigation in Africa Programme), spearheaded by UNESCO in partnership with the government of Kenya and with the financial support of the Government of Japan had identified two new groundwater sources: The Lotikipi Basin Aquifer and the Lodwar Aquifer.

The study found that Turkana hosts a minimum reserve of 250 billion cubic meters of water, which is recharged mainly by the rainfalls of the Kenyan and Ugandan highlands at a rate of 3.4 billion cubic meters per year.

The water source alone is said to be twice the amount Kenyans consume today and could boost the country’s share of water by 17%. Upon further research however, the preliminary test results from Lotikipi showed that the water was too salty to drink.

After drilling 350 meters underground, saline levels were seven times higher than considered safe by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Experts were still hopeful of the viability citing desalination of water as one of the solutions.

Already there are organizations who are desalinating water from the rift valley which ordinarily has very high levels of Flouride. It may be a bit expensive but its definitely cheaper than tracking water to those communities for human consumption.

The solution lies within our borders

Even as the drought continues to bite, the government of Kenya remains adamant that it cannot be declared a national disaster but just a crisis that will be managed according to Cabinet Secretaries Henry Rotich, Mwangi Kiunjuri and Eugene Wamalwa.

All eyes are now on, the Kenya Red Cross which has launched the #EmbraceAFamily movement urging Kenyans to support a hungry child in drought hit areas.

An almost similar initiative, then dubbed ‘Kenyans for Kenya’ initiative by the same organization back in 2011 was commendable not only as a show of solidarity in order to alleviate the suffering of fellow countrymen but also as a symbolic reminder that the solutions lie within us.

We have the capacity to solve our own problems, let’s not look elsewhere.

Decorative Ideas For Your Ceiling


The most overlooked area in most residential homes and office premises is the ceiling.

A quick survey will reveal that most institutions will have their ceilings painted plain white yet there is alot more than one can do to add life to a space just by taking advantage of the fifth wall, as it is commonly referred to.

Paint on plaster

The frescoes of Sistine Chapel by Michel Angelo are undoubtedly one of the most lauded ceilings in the world. Though slightly too elaborate for our current times, it presents a perfect example of how paint on plaster can be used to transform a ceiling and give a space its own unique character.

Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512 is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.

A plain white ceiling can be painted with cool colors that match the walls giving the illusion of the ceiling and the wall being one.

If you are feeling adventurous and want to add a bit of contrast, the possibilities are endless. You can paint your ceiling a completely different color from the walls, making the ceiling stand out.

Wall Paper On Ceilings

Wall paper on ceiling/PHOTO COURTESY

Experimenting with different patterns that are bold can be achieved with paint, and even wall paper. Yes, you heard right, wall paper for ceilings is a thing now. Why do you think that many designers refer to the ceiling as the ‘fifth wall’? The advantage with wall paper is that you can hang it yourself, and can be removed in future when need arises.

This means you get to add texture and style to a plain ceiling without it costing an arm and a leg.

Gypsum Ceilings

Decorative gypsum ceilng

Obviously the type of material you use for your ceiling can either limit or provide a variety of options with regard to ceiling design. A false ceiling is a secondary ceiling dropped below the main (structural) ceiling.

Originally, they were developed so as to conceal building infrastructure such as piping, wiring and duct work and in the process provide much needed aesthetics and ambiance. Gypsum boards are the most popular because they are relatively easy to install and can achieve a variety of irregular shapes and forms.

Intricate designs will incorporate elaborate lighting systems which may be hidden or may incorporate appropriate lighting fixtures such as down lighters and even chandeliers.

PVC Ceilings

PVC Ceilings are available in either matt or gloss finish

One downside of gypsum boards is that they are easily damaged when exposed to water or moisture.

PVC panels are an excellent alternative to decorating your ceilings and making them waterproof. It is an ideal low maintenance solution since it requires little and sometimes no regular upkeep apart from the occasional dusting. No need to paint, but be rest assured that it will remain vibrant for years. PVC panels are available in matt or gloss finish.

Wood on Ceilings

A touch of wood on ceilings offers that classic look and always give the room a cozy feel. Wood boards and wood panels are an option to consider but remember to pair it up with warm colours to play up to its coziness and make the room feel more intimate.

Wood is a soft but strong and durable material and has some very impressive and beautiful qualities.Each type of wood has its own characteristics but they all share a similar elegance and a natural beauty that is difficult to replicate

Wood ceilings play up a room’s coziness

Acoustic Ceilings

Acoustical ceilings, like their name suggests have high sound absorption properties and are suitable for sound control and noise reduction.They are available either as acoustic ceiling tiles, which are glued directly on to a plastered ceiling, or acoustic panels typically installed into a grid system which is suspended from the ceiling with metal wire.

Due to its commercial appearance, the suspended ceiling system is not widely used in residences but is quite popular in commercial spaces ranging from office buildings, banks, schools and even hospitals.

Acoustic ceilings are popular in commercial spaces

‘’ So with the many options available, ensure that you incorporate ceiling design into the overall design of your spaces. Giving a room new identity, playing up its assets or toning down its shortcomings may be as simple as just getting rid of that plain white ceiling. What other ways do you think can liven up a ceiling? Kindly let us know in the comment section. ‘’

The good, the bad and the ugly: A review of public infrastructure projects in Kenya


If I had a dollar for every time government projects experienced delays and cost overruns, I’d be swimming in a pool of money by now.

In the month of October 2016, residents of Nairobi were informed that they would have to bear with traffic snarl ups for an additional six months due to delayed completion of the Outering road project.

The announcement came as the Chairman of the Kenya Urban Roads Authority (KURA), Daniel Njora, opened part of the road and defended the delay in implementation of the project citing the relocation of services such as water, sewer and power lines as the main setback.

This means that the project that was scheduled to be launched in September 2017 will now run till March 2018. An obvious ripple effect would be a rise in total cost of the project which is reportedly being projected to increase from 7.395 billion to 8.2 billion.

 Overpass construction Outering road

Cost and time overruns on government projects are a global phenomenon.

Describing government infrastructure, the World Bank is quoted stating that, “studies show a history of extensive cost and time overruns in construction projects across the sectors and in countries around the world.”

Given the important role the construction industry plays in national economic development, this is a problem whose importance is a national headache and cannot be taken for granted because it bears in a part on the very basic facets of National economic development and the social welfare of the state.

Particularly for developing countries which have a long way to go in the process of development and given that some projects are funded with foreign debt, this is an issue that needs to be taken seriously with a view of curbing it.

The construction of Greenfield terminal at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport 

In Kenya, the construction of Thika Superhighway which was set to be completed in the year 2011 was realized a year later.

The deadline was moved twice resulting in both cost and time overruns. The project cost kshs 7 billion more than the original budget.

The construction of Greenfield terminal at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport had its start date postponed several times before it was finally abandoned altogether.

This was after the contractor had already mobilised 90 per cent of the equipment required for the execution of the work and excavations for foundations had been ongoing.

Queries have also been raised over the economic viability of LAPSETT, after key landlocked state Uganda opted for Tanzania as its preferred route for an oil pipeline and Ethiopia signed another agreement with Djibouti in October last year for the construction of a 550-kilometre pipeline to transport diesel, gasoline and jet fuel from port Access in Djibouti to central Ethiopia.

The Standard gauge railway, a sub project of the LAPSSET Vision 2030 initiative, has had questions raised regarding its costing especially after it emerged that Kenyans are being charged $6.6 million per kilometre compared to $4.9 million per kilometre for Ethiopia’s ER.

SGR railway project

Cost overruns in public construction projects are often the content of scandal in the news media.’

Typically government officials and contractors are treated as eager participants in bribes, awarding illegal tenders and other forms of corruption.

Wasteful spending is another big problem since people tend not to spend other people’s money as carefully as they spend their own.

In governments, policymakers and administrators deal with large amounts of other people’s money and should exercise due diligence in how they choose to spend that money.

In addition for successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential for minimizing delays and cost overruns.

Each project should be managed by a competent and experienced project manager who will be able to exercise appropriate cost and time control measures and hence taming the runaway problem of delays and subsequent increases in cost.


How To Build A House In Ten Days


We live in a generation where speed is everything and patience as a virtue is on the verge of extinction. In order to stay competitive, businesses have to ensure they deliver their goods and services almost within the blink of an eye.

The millennials have taken over and have proven to be more tech savvy with greater access to information and more knowledge regarding global market trends and changes. They have been described as the microwave generation who expect nothing short of instant gratification. What this means is that, the bar has been raised even higher for those of us in the construction industry. The question on everyone’s mind is why should I wait for months when my home can be ready by tomorrow?

In principle, if you are able to save on time in any project you save on costs as well in the long term. Traditional methods of construction, no matter how efficient you try to be, simply cannot compete with the advantages offered by modern methods. By traditional, I mean masonry construction and in situ concreting of structures. These are not only labor intensive but have the disadvantage of being adversely affected by weather conditions.

The weight of masonry blocks, or even concrete structures increase the dead load that has to be sustained and taken safely to the foundation, hence will require a much more elaborate structural design in the form of more reinforcement, bigger columns, deeper beams etc.

Technicalities such as setting up of formwork and reinforcement and erecting of scaffolding take up a lot of time and add on to the complexity of the process. Work on lower levels cannot proceed before scaffolding can be removed (in about 3-4 weeks), further delaying the project.

Precast Panel Homes

Panel homes are gaining popularity in Kenya due to their ability to cut your build time in halve. These are houses built using factory precast concrete to form the exterior and support the structure.

Originally they were preferred for multistory buildings with simple floor plans but have evolved over time to capture the residential house construction market. Controlled manufacture of wall and even floor panels offers very precise construction, achieves a higher quality and reduces on wastage.

However, for precast construction to make economic sense, the location of the precast factory should not be too far from the site so that transport and handling charges are brought down to the minimum possible extent.

Detailed design is also needed at the joints in order to ensure satisfactory connections between the precast members.

Precast Panels being placed intio position. PHOTO/COURTESY

EPS panels

The National Housing Corporation, in a bid to develop decent and affordable housing in Kenya, introduced expandable polystyrene (EPS) panels to the Kenyan market. The EPS panels are an innovative building material consisting of EPS foam sandwiched between a galvanized steel wire mesh that provides for lightweight construction with excellent insulation properties.

Each panel is 3.0×1.5 meters wide and is a substitute for building stones and timber and take less time to erect. This means that they might very soon replace the traditional reinforced concrete and masonry in both horizontal and vertical parts such as roofing, walling and flooring. They are finished by plastering on both sides.

Residential House Construction in process using EPS panels IMAGE/COURTESY

Steel frame construction

Steel frame construction is one of the building techniques that have made construction of sky scrapers possible and is now being used for residential house construction. The skeleton of the building will consist of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-Beams constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are then attached to the frame.

The frame needs to be protected from fire because steel loses its strength at high temperatures and can cause a building to collapse.

Construction is quick and simple mainly since fabrication is carried out off site.

Steel as a building material in today’s construction industry is more durable, compared to wood, since it is not susceptible to termites and other pests. It is also able to span greater distances enabling design flexibility.

It has the highest strength to weight ratio of any construction material and is also a recyclable product.

Modern trends in the building and construction industry are leaning towards light weight construction and a shift from using natural building materials to more man made and composite materials with increased levels of fire safety. Off-site pre-fab construction is also being encouraged for more efficient use of these material and further reduction of build times. The bottom line is to save on time and ultimately cost but not to compromise on quality.

Residential House structure erected using light gauge steel. IMAGE/COURTESY

This is a win/win situation for all stakeholders since contractors are able to work on more projects in a year and clients are able to use their buildings much earlier and start generating income.

The National Construction week: A First in Kenya


Launched by Hon Proff Jacob Kaimenyi Cabinet Secretary Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning earlier this year, the National Construction week was projected to be a major driver for growth and advancement of Kenya’s construction industry.

This is the first time the week is being observed in Kenya, and has featured a series of events running between 2nd to 4th November.


Delegates registering for the Big 5 construct exhibition.

Today marks day three of the Big 5 construct exhibition, the official exhibition of Kenya’s National Construction Week, that is being hosted at Kenyatta International Conference Center.

The event was co-located with the National Construction Authority’s annual conference – ACoRCE that ran for two days between 2nd and 3rd November.

As a key player in the East African construction industry, the event is a must attend, providing the perfect opportunity to network and find certified, reliable suppliers for your business.

It not only allows for face to face interaction but also avails the information with regards to various innovative solutions available within the industry.


The JCB dancing diggers were part of the entertainment at the ongoing Big 5 Construct East Africa exhibition.

The Big 5 Construct East Africa offers a 360 degree overview of the Construction industry and has been the central meeting place for global manufacturers and decision-makers over the last two days.

According to the event organizer, the first day of the event gathered an impressive number of participants, over 2000 professionals.

A look at the list of exhibitors reveals various well known firms from construction heavyweight countries such as Turkey, Italy, Germany and Greece, bringing together international, never-before-seen, innovative solutions to the local industry.

It is the place where the latest construction products, equipment, technologies and services are showcased and is absolutely free of charge.


Delegates attending the workshop at the Big 5 construct East Africa held at KICC .

According to the NCA press release, the ACoRCE conference is a platform availed to the industry for discussing construction research findings as well as showcasing innovations in the construction industry with a view to foster growth and maximum contribution of the construction industry to the economy.

The conference was established with the main agenda being, to provide solutions to the challenges that plague the construction industry, referred to as the”6 Ms” namely: Money, Methods, Machines, Materials, Manpower and Market.


The first conference was held in September 2015 at Kenyatta International Convention Centre (KICC) attracting about 800 delegates and 25 exhibitors.

The conference theme was “showcasing innovations in the construction industry in the 21st Century for business Development.

The Second Annual Research Conference and Exhibition concluded the conference presentations yesterday with its main theme being “nurturing the transformation of local construction industry on materials and technologies for global best practice”

And just in case you missed it then it is important to note that proceedings from both (ACORCE 2015 &2016) conferences will be published in the inaugural construction journal of the NCA for public benefit.

Solving urban problems through cycling


Recently, the University Of Nairobi made headlines with news that it had come up with a solution to ease traffic congestion on roads.

The “Bike Share Challenge”, a program sponsored by UN Habitat, UON and the Nation Media Group was launched and started running in the University’s Main Campus.

Under the program, one can borrow a bike, ride it for an hour for just ksh 40 with the condition that you must leave your national ID to be picked upon returning the bicycle. This is in order to prevent theft.

At a time when Nairobi has been ranked the second worst city in the world on traffic congestion, such a move is welcome news and should be taken up by locals in and out of the city.

According to the Serbia-based website numbeo.com, Nairobians spend 62.44 minutes in traffic, thus leading in the top five cities in Africa with the worst traffic.

It is closely followed by Cairo in Egypt (51.56 minutes) and South African Cities Pretoria (49.00), Johannesburg (45.15), Cape Town (44.15) and Durban (53.12). Most of the contributors to this lousy state of affairs would take forever and a lot of time and money to reverse.

The lack of a proper transport system in the city has been blamed to an increase in the number of personal vehicles largely due to the ease with which one can acquire a vehicle and poor designs of roads providing bottlenecks that are a major contributor to jams.

The governments strategy has been to build or expand key roads around the city such as Outer Ring and Ngong Roads, and building a number of key terminuses outside the city centre to serve matatus, which would not have to reach the city centre e.g ParkRoad/Ngara for matatus in the Central Kenya Region, Pangani (under construction) and Muthurwa (currently overrun by hawkers).

While all these will definitely result to reduced traffic, we still have the issue of air pollution by gas emissions. A bike sharing system offers a sustainable solution (both from an environmental and financial standpoint) to the urban problems linked to pollution and traffic.

The Bike Share Challenge can be scaled and rolled out across counties with the concept being to provide free or affordable access to bicycles for short distance trips within an urban setting as an alternative to motorized public transport or private vehicles.

It can be used to solve the last mile problem and connect users to public transit networks, once we cordon off the city centre from public service vehicles.

It would be most preferred as opposed to owning your own bicycle since one does not have to worry about theft/vandalism, parking or storage and maintenance requirements.

It is also good exercise for the cyclist. It can be rolled out as a government initiative under a public private partnership and offered at a subsidized price to the general public.

Sustainable Building And How To Adapt To Climate Change

Green construction is the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle:

Climate change has stopped being a theory that we read about in books and is now a harsh reality. Human influences are thought to be the main cause behind the rise in global temperatures.

Global warming is defined as the gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. This has resulted to rising sea levels, stronger hurricanes and storms and greater frequencies of floods and droughts.

Human influence is the number one contributor to climate change. PHOTO COURTESY

Extreme weather conditions are likely to become the new normal.The summers are getting hotter and the winters colder. There is need to ensure our buildings are well adapted to climate change to ensure an efficient indoor climate control. Ideally, the level of thermal comfort indoors should be maintained regardless of the fluctuating weather conditions on the outside with little or no use of mechanical devices.

Houses are built primarily with the intent of providing shelter from harsh weather conditions. Careful thought as to how you build your buildings envelope may be the difference between a relaxed and productive atmosphere and the discomfort that arises from a dissatisfying thermal environment.

The sun is an important source of renewable energy available today and the best part about it is that it is absolutely free and clean. Right from the design stage, one can take advantage of solar energy by ensuring the design of your house permits maximum entry of solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and minimum entry during summer.

This is what is referred to as passive solar heating and it has everything to do with how you orient your building on site, and how you determine the position and size of your windows.

Solar energy is a clean source of energy and is renewable unlike non-renewable sources such as fossil fuels

The rule of thumb is to locate your windows on the side that is facing the equator.

That means that for a building located in the northern hemisphere, the general direction to receive sun throughout the day would be to face the windows towards the south but if it is located within the southern hemisphere, face the windows of the structure to the north.

East/west facing windows are normally avoided since they will experience the most solar heat gain and glare from direct sunlight entry but if you must have them, either minimize their sizes or provide for appropriate shading methods.

In the equatorial location, if solar heat gain is to be avoided, the main windows should face either north or south, depending on the exact site location.

You can never go wrong with trees.A part from aesthetics, trees will not only provide adequate shading for your building hence reducing solar gain especially in the hot afternoons but ensures further cooling takes place when water evaporates from the leaf surface.

Go for deciduous trees since they block the sunlight in the summer and allow us to receive the much needed warmth and light during the cold days.

Trees provide shading for your building, reducing solar gain and have an aesthetic appeal

They are also a natural air conditioner since they absorb carbon dioxide and potentially harmful gases such as carbon monoxide from the air and release oxygen.

Trees can also be used as windbreakers by reducing wind speed and subsequent loss of heat from your home. Heat transfer through a buildings envelope takes place through conduction, convection and radiation.

Ideally, heat will flow from an area of high temperature to lower temperature. The greater the temperature difference, the greater the heat flow through an assembly.

To make a building more comfortable, we need to impede these modes of heat transfer. Insulators placed between conductors will slow down heat transfer. The materials used to make a buildings elements are worth taking into consideration in order to adequately address the issue of thermal comfort.

Metals such as steel and aluminum are the most common conductors. Their greater rate of heat flow can be taken advantage of as pathways for heat to flow to colder areas. The key is in moderation, know where to use which material and how to best take advantage of its thermal properties or lack thereof.

This article was first published under the heading “Not too hot, not too cold” and has since been edited

From Rio, with love.


Rio has been the focus of our attention for the past two weeks having played host to the 2016 summer Olympics.Kenyans may not be the best in football (sorry, Harambee Stars) but our prowess in the running field is legendary.The games have been described as a ‘Kenya versus former Kenya’ affair with US, Israel, Bosnia and Bahrain getting to claim a slice of the glory thanks to Kenya’s talent glut.

Brazil, at face value seems to be eating life with a big spoon.In an ambitious undertaking, they have managed to capture the World’s attention, not once but twice.It is no doubt that there are only two major international sporting events that attract wide audiences in many countries; the Olympics (summer and winter) and the World Cup of soccer.

Brazil hosted the 2014 World Cup and now Rio De Janiero is hosting the 2016 Summer Olympics. Like Kenya, Brazil’s economy is driven by agriculture but tourism is also becoming a major industry with Rio De Janiero and São Paulo being the two of the most visited destinations in the country.The country stands to gain big with the exposure it received on the global platform extended by the Olympics.

An aerial view of the legendary Maracanã Stadium in Brazil that staged both the opening and closing ceremonies of Rio 2016 Olympics.

Picture getting the opportunity to watch the games, as my mother would say, with your own two eyes. I am not talking about watching live from a television screen but being in the stadium where the games are being held, breathing the same air as the competing athletes. Think of the adrenaline rushing to your veins and the pride that swells in your heart as you experience that moment when our Kenyan athletes bag the gold, silver and bronze medals as they race on Kenyan soil.

Imagine having the Kenyan National Anthem repeated so many times that the foreigners find themselves humming along to it. Think of the morale boost that home ground advantage will extend to #TeamKenya and the opportunity to showcase our Kenyan Culture to the entire world as the spotlight shines on us for TWO weeks. It is possible, it is achievable.I can see all you doubting Thomases and before you dismiss me I shall explain how.

So, what does a city got to do to earn the right to host the Olympics? Well, first you will need money, lots and lots of money……Am talking about 150,000 Us Dollars just for the bidding process.Bear in mind that you may have to bid more than once. Then consider setting aside other billions for the operation costs largely classified as cost of security, venue construction or renovation costs and infrastructure costs.

Extended infrastructure will be in the form of new stadia, sports arenas and venues, hotels and transport. An Olympic village and Paralympic village will be built within the host city to house all participating athletes as well as officials and athletic trainers.

After the Olympics, these accommodation centers are sold off to become residential housing while the stadia and arena for sporting events will serve a useful purpose in future years for the city’s population.

View of Olympic village in Rio Brazil.

With the Olympics comes a huge number of tourists, athletes, journalists and politicians. The city must be big enough to handle this large crowd. High security and a reliable mass transit system will be required to transport everyone from one place to the next.

Rio, and Brazil as a whole for example experienced a massive overhaul of the national transportation infrastructure by building new roads, creating a rapid-transit train between São Paulo and Rio, new subway lines in São Paulo and new ports plus building new Hydroelectric power plants and transmission lines to power them them all. As a result, athletes did not take any longer than 50 minutes to get to competition and training areas.

The Mega event has far reaching economic consequences. The accelerated construction schedules and poor oversight as well as the cost overruns associated with the Olympics have led many economists to label the games as a money loser for cities particularly in developing nations.

Losses are made when costs exceed expectations while revenue falls below what had been expected.At the moment, the cost for Rio is estimated at around 4.6 billion dollars having incurred a 51 percent cost overrun.

Avenues for revenue generation include sale of TV broadcasting rights mainly via sales to the US networks as well as millions pumped into the economy by expenditure on meals, entertainment and accommodations by thousands of tourists.

Only time will tell whether Brazilians will get value for their money but from where we are standing, a few red flags have already been raised key of which being that the entire transportation investment of the (Rio) games have been captured by the event agenda without a firm master plan.What this means is that the transport serves the upper and middle class instead of the masses who really need them.

There is need for proper planning and exact execution to aid not only in the overall success of the mega event but to also lead to future lasting benefits for the community.

It is possible to use the Olympics as a catalyst to spur Mega economic projects. For example, Barcelona, Spain which played host in 1992 had already built or was in the process of building 32 of 37 Olympic venues before the IOC even selected it.The mega event was then used as a means to spur the construction of its already planned roads, circular highways that keep traffic out of downtown.The games are often credited with transforming Barcelona into a tourist hub.

This then makes up for the costs once the physical legacy from the games sports venue and infrastructure are turned around to produce future streams of benefits.

San-shan Bridge designed for the 2022 winter Olympics to be held in Beijing China.

Back home, the jubilee government came into power with a promise of building five new stadia in five different counties nationwide.So far, it is only the feasibility studies for the proposed sites that have been conducted.

Meanwhile Kenya is also expected to host the 2018 Africa Nation Championship but at the beginning of this year’s championship that happened in Rwanda, it was noted by the Confederation of Africa Football (CAF) that Kenya’s preparation for the same was unsatisfactory and the body was also concerned about the state of Kenya’s stadiums.

Ethiopia has since been asked to standby to take up hosting rights should Kenya fail the test. Putting all this into perspective, together with the stories circulating around the media regarding the crisis that befell our athletes and their coaches thanks to guys at good old NOCK, one can only judge for themselves just how many years it would take before one of Kenya’s cities or read counties would be ready to host the Olympics.

Latest Posts

Follow me on social media


Se vuoi migliorare il numero di spermatozoi ed aumentare le possibilità di diventare padre, dirigiti subito su questo link. Secondo il dottor Köhler, un uomo sano e in levitra generico acquisto forma dovrebbe avere fino a 5 erezioni per notte. Fatica e calo del testosterone indotto dal movimento possono avere un ruolo; resta da capire la soglia oltre cui se comprar viagra generica farmacias l’allenamento diventa eccessivo, che potrebbe essere diversa fra i vari individui e dovrà essere stabilita attraverso studi più approfonditi. Meglio chiedere aiuto e acquistare propecia on line ritagliarvi tempo con il partner In questo modo, i tempi si allungano sino a sei volte rispetto a prima. Si embrica in parte con il desiderio sessuale da un lato e kamagra farmacia l’inizio della risposta sessuale genitale vera e propria dall’altro. Si finisce per arrendersi ad un atteggiamento passivo, dove non si cerca aiuto, o peggio, si chiede il divorzio.

Le chrome, le magnésium, les vitamines B, les oméga 3 (forme poissons des mers froides) sont eux aussi importants cialis pas cher france dans ce protocole. Il leur offre un moment de plaisir intense en les aidant à lutter contre les obligations levitra achat en ligne terre-à-terre ou difficiles de la vie (et même en les oubliant pendant un moment). Ils se différencient par leur prix kamagra allemagne délai d'efficacité. Pour les femmes souffrant de sécheresse vaginale ou d'anaphrodisie (difficultés à atteindre achat propecia l'orgasme), il existe également des mélanges actifs. Pour information, le manque de libido fréquent touche 15 % d’hommes chaque année.

Gennem sin mangeårige erfaring som rådgiver for helt almindelige danske par, har hun fået en god indsigt i, hvad mænd savner i sengen, for ofte er det de samme cialis billig kaufen ting, der går igen. En af mændenes allerstørste udfordringer er, at de vejer for meget. Alene de frække tanker vil helt automatisk få dig til at bruge din krop køb viagra på nettet anderledes og mere sexet, og du vil begynde at udsende feromoner (de duftstoffer, du udskiller, når du bliver seksuelt ophidset). Jo flere forskellige steder I prøver online apotheke schweiz cialis det, jo mere spændene bliver det. Jeg er generelt skeptisk, når det gælder midler, der direkte hævder at kunne styrke kvinders sexlyst. Dette er den nyeste form for cialis pa apotek behandling, og dermed også den mindst undersøgte. Lige meget om du er kvinde eller mand, så er der et par ting, der er værd at vide, hvis man vil eksperimentere med analsex.

Site internet de l'Institut photovoltaïque d'Ile de France Si les troubles de l’érection sont toujours présents au bout de 3 mois, un traitement peu vous viagra cialis acheter être prescrit. La liste des stimulants sexuels à base de plantes médicinales qui sont considérés comme traditionnels et efficaces est longue. «Cela s'est Acheter Cialis en Ligne France fait après un rendez-vous avec un médecin du travail. Si vous avez eu ce type d’expérience, il est probable que la dysfonction érectile ne soit pas votre viagra prix officine seul combat et vous devriez sérieusement envisager de faire appel à une aide professionnelle. Ce savoir sûr et fiable est une authentique source de passion et prix viagra en france permet, en matière de sexualité, de faire les bons choix et de se sentir bien dans sa peau. entraînent peu à peu un manque de temps à consacrer à la sexualité.

Secondo quanto emerso dagli studi, il testosterone possiede ulteriori effetti sulla salute dell’organismo maschile di https://24pharmstore.com/vigora-online/ quelli già noti: L’assunzione per via orale di integratori a base di Yohimbina determina un aumento dell’afflusso e Comprare Vigora Online Italia ad una riduzione del deflusso di sangue dai corpi cavernosi del pene. Anche nel periodo post-operatorio verrà Comprare Depforce regolarmente seguito presso ambulatori specialistici per il controllo di follow-up e per affrontare eventuali complicanze Generic Viagra in Farmacia Prezzo dell’intervento. Garanzia di apprezzamento - ben il 93,8% degli uomini intervistati conferma l'elevata efficacia di Drivelan Ultra.